AWS ERNI-1         
Data Table for Steel Grades:AWS ERNI-1
Mechanical properties of grade steel:
Chemical composition % of the ladle analysis of steel grade:
Max 0.15Max 0.75Max 1.0 Max 0.03Max 0.15
Mix 93.0


Max 0.25Max 1.5Fe Max 1.0
Technological properties of grade steel:
Hardness and heat treatment specification of steel grade:
salt-bath furnacecontrolled atmosphere furnace
235262788119112045~15air cooling52260
Hot-rolled/Cold rolling:5 - 15052041516~182a3.5a
(1) listed in the table apex diameter (d), to steel thickness (a) multiples said.
(2) in the ASTM A6 standard specified scope can meet any additional conditions.
(3) from the standard for 50 mm (2 in).
Mechanical properties of Steelun.
Mechanische Eigenschaften of Steelun.
Caracteristiques mecaniques of Steelun.
ReH Minimum yield strength / Mindestwert der oberen Streckgrenze / Limite d’elasticite minimale
Rm Tensile strength / Zugfestigkeit / Resistance a la traction
A Minimum elongation / Mindestwert der Bruchdehnung / Allongement minimal
J Notch impact test / Kerbschlagbiegeversuch / Essai de flexion par choc
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Steel description: Steelun.
Step Shaft: steel plate/sheet,coil,round bar,flat bar,tube/pipe,Profiled forgings
Steelun steel Specifications or Size:
Diameter : 1mm-2000mm
Size: 50mm * 50mm-600mm *600mm
Size: Thickness: 0.1mm-800mm Width: 10mm to 1500mm
Size: OD: 6-219mm WT: 1-35 mm.
Cold-rolled sheet: Thickness: 2-5mm Width:1000mm Length: 2000mm
Hot-rolled sheet: Thickness:6-80mm Width: 210-610mm
Length: We can supply any length based on the customer's requirement.
Forging/hot rolling/ extrusion of steel.
Forging: Shafts with flanks/pipes/tubes/slugs/donuts/cubes/other shapes
Finished goods condition: hot forging/hot rolling + annealing/normalizing + tempering/quenching + tempering/any conditions based on the customer's requirement
Surface conditions: scaled (hot working finish)/ground/rough machining/fine machining/based on the customer's requirement
Furnaces for metallurgical processingelectrode arc + LF/VD/VOD/ESR/Vacuum consumable electrode.
Ultrasonic inspection: 100% ultrasonic inspection for any in-perfections or based on the customer's requirement.
UTS according to SEP 1921 C/c,D/d,E/e;A388 or GB/T 6402
Excellent service for all kinds of industries, with advantages of technologies, equipment and price.
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        Further reading

The United States standard grade of steel representation methodAISIACIASTM, SAE,UNS,ANSI,
The German standard grade of steel representation method:DIN.
The Japan standard grade of steel representation method:JIS.
The Britain standard grade of steel representation method:BS.
The France standard grade of steel representation method:NF.
The Russia standard grade of steel representation method:ΓOCT.
The China standard grade of steel representation method:GB/T 221—2000/GB/T 17616—1998.
The Korea standard grade of steel representation method:KS.
The Taiwan(China) standard grade of steel representation method:CNS.
The Sweden standard grade of steel representation method:SS(SIS).
The international organization for standard grade of steel representation method:ISO.
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SteelForged, BarTubePipeCoilPlateSheetStripWireIngotBillet,FlangeRing,Valve.
<prime, carbon, stainless, construction, mill, metallurgy, blast, furnace, iron, coils, sheets, slabs, aluminized, aluzinc, galvalume, hot rolled, cold rolled, electro galvanized, galvannealed, hot dip galvanized, sandwich panels, hot rolled, prepainted, perforated, pvc coated, tinplate, plates, clad, expanded metal, merchant bars, shaftings, piles,trench sheets, billets, blooms, rails, tubes, pipes, seamless, welded, angles, reinforcing bars, beams, channels, ropes, strand, wire, sections, cold formed, rod, castings, flanges, scrap, dished heads, gratings, strapping, chains, valves, fittings, fasteners, Ingots, welding, electrodes, fencing, pig iron, mesh, cans, drums, contractor, erection, engineerin,etc.>
Steel is an alloy made by combining iron and other elements, the most common of these being carbon. When carbon is used, its content in the steel is between 0.002% and 2.1% by weight, depending on the grade. Other alloying elements sometimes used are manganese, silicon,chromium, molybdenum, boron, titanium, vanadium and niobium.
Carbon and other elements act as a hardening agent, preventing dislocations in the iron atom crystal lattice from sliding past one another. Varying the amount of alloying elements and the form of their presence in the steel (solute elements, precipitated phase) controls qualities such as the hardness, ductility, and tensile strength of the resulting steel. Steel with increased carbon content can be made harder and stronger than iron, but such steel is also less ductile than iron.
Alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content are known as cast iron because of their lower melting point and good castability.Steel is also distinguishable from wrought iron, which can contain a small amount of carbon, but it is included in the form of slaginclusions. Two distinguishing factors are steel's increased rust resistance and better weldability.
Though steel had been produced by various inefficient methods long before the Renaissance, its use became more common after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century. With the invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, steel became an inexpensive mass-produced material. Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS), lowered the cost of production while increasing the quality of the metal. Today, steel is one of the most common materials in the world, with more than 1.3 billion tons produced annually. It is a major component in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons. Modern steel is generally identified by various grades defined by assorted standards organizations.
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Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. Forging is often classified according to the temperature at which it is performed: "cold", "warm", or "hot" forging. Forged parts can range in weight from less than a kilogram to 580 metric tons.[1][2] Forged parts usually require further processing to achieve a finished part.
Such as: .2 Drop forging
3.2.1 Open-die drop forging
3.2.2 Impression-die drop forging Design of impression-die forgings and tooling
3.3 Press forging
3.4 Upset forging
3.5 Automatic hot forging
3.6 Roll forging
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A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow — liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders, masses of small solids. It can also be used for structural applications; hollow pipe is far stiffer per unit weight than solid members.
In common usage the words pipe and tube are usually interchangeable, but in industry and engineering, the terms are uniquely defined. Depending on the applicable standard to which it is manufactured, pipe is generally specified by a nominal diameter with a constant outside diameter (OD) and a schedule that defines the thickness. Tube is most often specified by the OD and wall thickness, but may be specified by any two of OD, inside diameter (ID), and wall thickness. Pipe is generally manufactured to one of several international and national industrial standards.[1] While similar standards exist for specific industry application tubing, tube is often made to custom sizes and a broader range of diameters and tolerances. Many industrial and government standards exist for the production of pipe and tubing. The term "tube" is also commonly applied to non-cylindrical sections, i.e., square or rectangular tubing. In general, "pipe" is the more common term in most of the world, whereas "tube" is more widely used in the United States.
Both "pipe" and "tube" imply a level of rigidity and permanence, whereas a hose (or hosepipe) is usually portable and flexible. Pipe assemblies are almost always constructed with the use of fittings such as elbows, tees, and so on, while tube may be formed or bent into custom configurations. For materials that are inflexible, cannot be formed, or where construction is governed by codes or standards, tube assemblies are also constructed with the use of tube fittings.
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Coil, also known as rolled steel. Steel hot press, cold press forming roll form. In order to facilitate storage and transport, to facilitate the various processing (e.g., processed into a plate, strip, etc.).
The molding volume is mainly hot rolled coil and cold rolled coil. Hot rolled coil is pre-processed products billet recrystallization. Cold rolled coil subsequent processing of hot rolled coil. Coil weight is about 15-30T. This year, the hot-rolled production capacity in China is expanding, and has dozens of hot-rolled production lines, as well as a number of projects to be opened to built or put into operation.
Coil rolls sell for large customers, the average user is not limited open-book device or dosage. Therefore, the subsequent processing of steel coils is a promising industry. Of course, a large steel mills have their own open-book and leveling projects.
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 Steel Sheet/plate
steel sheet (s) and plate (s)
The steel plate is a flat, rectangular, can be directly rolled wide strips cut from.
The steel sheet according to the thickness points, thin steel <4 mm (the thinnest 0.2 mm) thick steel plate 4 to 60 mm thick steel plate of 60 to 115 mm.
, Divided into hot-rolled and cold-rolled steel plate rolling points.
The width of the sheet is 500 to 1500 mm; thickness of 600 to 3000 mm in width. Sheet, steel grades, ordinary steel, high-quality steel, alloy steel, spring steel, stainless steel, tool steel, heat resistant steel, bearing steel, silicon steel and industrial pure iron sheet; professional use, drums board enamel plates, bulletproof board; surface coating, galvanized sheet, tin plate, lead sheet, plastic composite steel plating.
Steel plate steels substantially the same as the thin steel sheet. In all aspects of products, in addition to the purely slab bridge steel plate, boiler plate, automobile manufacturing, steel plate, pressure vessel steel plates and multi-layer high pressure vessel steel plate and other varieties, some varieties of steel plate, such as automobile beam steel (2.5 to 10 mm thick), the pattern the steel plate (thickness of 2.5 to 8 mm), stainless steel, heat resistant steel plate and other varieties of the same thin cross.
Another, steel plate, the said material, not all of the steel sheet are the same, the material is not the same, the steel sheet used, nor the same.

Classification of steel plate.
Steel plate (including strip) Category:
1> Thickness: 1. sheet 2. board 3.thick plate 4. special thick plate.
2>Production methods of steel plate: 1. hot-rolled steel plate 2. cold-rolled steel
3>Surface features of steel plate:  1. tin plate galvanized sheet (hot dip galvanized sheet, 2.  galvanized sheet,3. composite steel plate,4.color coated steel plate.
4>The purpose of steel plate: 1. the bridges steel plate 2. the boilerplate 3. the shipbuilding plate4. Armor plate, 5.automotive steel plate, 6. roof plate steel ,7.structural steelslate,8.silicon steel sheet ,9. spring plate 10.Heat-resistant steel sheet,11.alloy steel plate,12.othe steel plate.
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An ingot is a material, usually metal, that is cast into a shape suitable for further processing.[1] Non-metallic and semiconductor materials prepared in bulk form may also be referred to as ingots, particularly when cast by mold based methods.

Classification of ingot
First of all,Ingot under normal circumstances can be broadly divided into the following categories:
1.       No net steel,2. cap steel (stamped steel)3. Full net steel,4. half net steel,5. the vacuum deaerator Steel (vacuum degassing steel)
Besides,Due to the different oxygen concentration in the molten steel before casting, the ingot is divided into killed steel, boiling steel, and the three basic types of semi-killed steel.
Killed steel
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The billet is the steelmaking furnace Make molten steel after casting products. Billets mainly from the manufacturing process can be divided into two kinds: analog-to-slab and billet, the die casting process has been basically eliminated.

The billet is the steelmaking furnace Make molten steel after casting products.
Billets mainly from the manufacturing process can be divided into two kinds: analog-to-slab and billet, the die casting process has been basically eliminated.
From the shape of two major types:
Slab: cross-sectional width, a high ratio is large, mainly used to the rolled plate.
Billet: cross-section width and height are equal, or not very different, mainly used for rolling steel, wire rod.
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A flange is an external or internal ridge, or rim (lip), for strength, as the flange of an iron beam such as an I-beam or a T-beam; or for attachment to another object, as the flange on the end of a pipe, steam cylinder, etc., or on the lens mount of a camera; or for a flange of a rail car or tram wheel. Thus flanged wheels are wheels with a flange on one side to keep the wheels from running off therails. The term "flange" is also used for a kind of tool used to form flanges. Pipes with flanges can be assembled and disassembled easily.

Production Material can be divided into: the WCB (carbon steel), the LCB (low-temperature carbon steel), LC3 (3.5% stainless steel with a neck welded steel pipe flanges
Nickel steel) WC5 (1.25% chromium 0.5% molybdenum steel), WC9 (2.25% Cr), C5 (5% chromium% molybdenum), C12 (9% chromium, 1% molybdenum), CA6NM (4 (12% chromium steel) CA15 4. (12% chromium), CF8M (316 stainless steel), CF8C (347 stainless steel), CF8 (304 stainless steel), CF3 (304L stainless steel), CF3M (316L stainless steel), CN7M (alloy steel), M35-1 (Monel) N7M the (haast nickel alloy B), CW6M (C, of Harstad nickel alloy), CY40 (Inconel)
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A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically valves fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category. In an open valve, fluid flows in a direction from higher pressure to lower pressure.
The simplest, and very ancient, valve is simply a freely hinged flap which drops to obstruct fluid (gas or liquid) flow in one direction, but is pushed open by flow in the opposite direction. This is called a check valve, as it prevents or "checks" the flow in one direction.
Valves have many uses, including controlling water for Irrigation, industrial uses for controlling processes, residential uses such as on / off & pressure control to dish and clothes washers & taps in the home. Even aerosols have a tiny valve built in. Valves are also used in the military & transport sectors.
Valves are found in virtually every industrial process, including water & sewage processing, mining, power generation, processing of oil, gas & petroleum, food manufacturing, chemical & plastic manufacturing and many other fields.
In developed nations we use valves in our daily lives, the most noticeable are plumbing valves, such as taps for tap water. Other familiar examples include gas control valves on cookers, small valves fitted to washing machines and dishwashers, safety devices fitted to hot water systems, and valves in car engines. VALVE is not only a flow controlling device,It also regulates the flow,regulates and controls the pressure. Types (General): 1.BALL 2.BUTTER-FLY 3.GATE 4.GLOBE 5.NEEDLE 6.PLUG 7.SPHERICAL 8.FIXED CONE 9.NON-RETURN (CHECK) VALVE.

In nature there can be found examples of valves, for example veins acting as valves are controlling the blood circulation & heart valves control the flow of blood in thechambers of the heart and maintain the correct pumping action.
Valves may be operated manually, either by a handle, lever, pedal or wheel. Valves may also be automatic, driven by changes in pressure, temperature, or flow. These changes may act upon a diaphragm or a piston which in turn activates the valve, examples of this type of valve found commonly are safety valves fitted to hot water systems or boilers.
More complex control systems using valves requiring automatic control based on an external input (i.e., regulating flow through a pipe to a changing set point) require anactuator. An actuator will stroke the valve depending on its input and set-up, allowing the valve to be positioned accurately, and allowing control over a variety of requirements.

Valve control components in the fluid delivery system, with a cut-off regulation, diversion, to prevent the counter-current, voltage regulators, shunt or overflow pressure relief function. Valves for fluid control systems, shut-off valve from the most simple to the extremely complex automatic control systems used in a variety of valve, a considerable range of varieties and specifications. The valve can be used to control the flow of air, water, steam, various corrosive media, mud, oil, liquid metal, and the radioactive media, such as various types of fluid. The valve according to the material divided into cast iron valves, cast steel valves, stainless steel valves, chromium molybdenum steel valve, chrome molybdenum vanadium steel valves, the duplex steel valves, plastic valves, non-standard custom valve material.

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