Procedure of Steel

                                     The Procedure of Steel

Steel:It is based on Fe and C as the main component elements, and it also contains Si, Mn, P, S and other impurity elements. Contains pig iron and steel.
Pig iron: Carbon mass fraction (wc> 2.11%), higher content of impurity elements in iron-carbon alloys, pig iron, high hardness, brittle, rarely used directly.
Steel: Lower carbon content (wc <2.11%), lower levels of impurity elements iron-carbon alloy steel generally has good strength and toughness, and it is commonly used in metal material.
Steel: steel ingot or billet pressure processed into a variety of shapes and sizes.

  • • The  flow chart of steel production
  • • Firstly, Ironmaking
  • • Secondly,Steelmaking
  • • Thirdly, Steel-production

                                         The  flow chart of steel production

Firstly, Ironmaking
The purpose of Ironmaking T: iron ore reduction process
The blast method of Ironmaking: blast furnace ironmaking
The raw material of Ironmaking: iron ore, coke, solvents, etc.

The raw material of Ironmaking
   Ron Ore: It is the main ofr Ironmaking raw materials, magnetite "Fe3O4", "Fe2O3", hematite, limonite "2Fe2O3.3H2O", siderite FeCO3 ".Besides the   iron compounds of  Iron ore, and further containing a compound of silicon, manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, etc., these are collectively referred to as gangue
Coke: The heat of combustion for ironmaking heat source; incomplete combustion of CO gas as a reducing agent, the iron ore reduction
  Flux: limestone (CaCO3), fluorspar (CaF2). Its role is combined with the gangue in the iron ore in the formation of low-melting point, low density, and good fluidity slag, so separated from the liquid iron, so as to obtain relatively pure pig iron solution
Blast furnace
  The main products are pig iron byproduct slag and furnace gas (smelting process and the principle of Figure)
Pig iron
   Steelmaking pig iron: low mass fraction of silicon (wSi <1.25%), fracture was silver-white, mainly used in steelmaking
   Casting pig iron: the mass fraction of the silicon (wSi> 1.25% ~ 3.2%), fracture grayish black, used for casting materials


Steelmaking in real terms: to reduce the carbon content of impurity elements in pig iron by oxidation, so as to meet the standard requirements of the composition and performance;
Steelmaking raw materials: steel-making raw materials pig iron, steel scrap, flux (limestone), deoxidizer (ferrosilicon, ferromanganese, aluminum, etc.), alloys and other materials;
Steelmaking process: including oxidation, slagging, deoxy;
Steelmaking method: the steelmaking main the BOF steelmaking electric steelmaking;

Oxygen top-blown converter steelmaking: mainly pig iron liquid as raw material, add appropriate amount of scrap, which is characterized by high productivity, energy saving, low cost and suitable for large-scale iron and steel enterprises, mainly the production of all types of general-purpose non-alloy steel (carbon steel)

Electric arc furnace steelmaking
Pouring of steel: the solidification of molten steel into the process of the ingot or billet. For varying degrees DEOXIDATION can be divided killed steel and rimmed steel.
nbsp; killed steel: refers to the the deoxidation full steel. Killed steel compact structure, good performance, processing required removal of the ingot head, so that the finished product rate decreased
      Boiling steel: The dideoxy insufficient steel. The boiling steel ingot multi-holes, loose tissue, the performance is worse than killed steel. However, high-yield, good quality rolling the sheet surface
      Semi-killed steel: the degree of deoxidation range between killed steel and rimmed steel steel

Thirdly, Steel-production

Types of steel: steel, steel, steel pipes, steel wire;
Production methods: rolling (divided into cold-rolled and hot-rolled), drawing, extruding, forging and other methods.
Steel rolling
    Steel plate: steel ingot or billet rolling into a steel plate. Surface treatment can be galvanized steel plate, tin, lead-plated, plastic composite
    Plate: 5mm; the thickness of the intermediate plate is 3 ~ 5mm, generally by hot rolling
    Sheet: thickness of less than 3mm, billets for hot rolled plate, cold-rolled
    Stripes: into a volume supply cold-rolled
    Steel: section mill rolling. There are round, square steel, flat steel, hexagonal, octagonal steel, I-beam, channel, angle iron, T word steel and so on. Ordinary steel used in buildings, bridges, vehicles, high-quality steel is mainly used for mechanical parts, tools, etc.
    Wire: 6 ~ 9mm diameter hot rolled wire rod (wire rod) drawing is made. Annealing of low carbon steel wire for tying objects can also be woven into a variety of supplies; carbon steel wire can be made into a variety of spring, or with a plurality of steel wire rope and wire rope twisted into a partnership for slings, wire, cable fixed object.
    Steel pipe: sub seamless pipe and welded pipe.
    Seamless pipe: pipe using the rotary piercing machine will be solid billet perforation, cold drawn or hot-rolled steel. Seamless steel pipe is mainly used in petroleum, chemical and other industries
    Seam pipe: steel sheet or strip coils and pressed, and then welded together. Seam steel widely used, mainly for water pipes, gas pipes
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